Print

*** In this space they remain parts of the quarters that are possibly associated to the temple of Tezcatlipoca, one of the first places of the spanish conquistadors and the first headquarters of the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico


*** The INAH, in collaboration with UNAM, rescues and exhibit some of that past in an archaeological window, which is integrated to the curating of the property that will aim at the permanent exhibition: The UNAM Today


Few corners of Mexico City focused much history as the apex formed by the streets Moneda and Plaza Seminario; About this reduced property and along more than 500 years worked, at different times: quarters possibly related to Tezcatlipoca temple, first places assigned to the conquerors, from Mayorazgo Grande de Guerrero, the first headquarters of the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, also traditional business as the pub “El Nivel” (The Level) or “El Cardenal” restaurant (The Cardinal restaurant).

The National Institute of Anthropology and History (INAH), by Urban Archaeology Program (PAU) and the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM), the respective acronyms in spanish; through the General Direction of Heritage University, joined efforts to rescue and exhibit a part of that past in an archaeological window of 4.32 m. on 2.44 m.

This space is integrated into the curating of the property that will aim at the permanent exhibition: The UNAM Today, dedicated to highlighting the role of the Leading Academic Institution in the country's transformation and its global projection.

From the top of the number 2 from street Moneda you have a privileged view of the Zocalo and the Metropolitan Cathedral, but three meters below the floor remain architectural remains of pre-hispanic, colonial and historical periods. That explains the archaeologist Raul Barrera, head of the PAU, who worked at the site along two seasons.

During the excavations between 2011 and 2013, which were alternately assisted by archaeologists as Cristina Cuevas, Lorena Vazquez Vallin, Moramay Estrada, Bertha A. Flores, Estibaliz Aguayo, Rocio Orozco, Alan Barrera and Hegel Leonardo Mercado, they detected traces of quarters probably associated with Tezcatlipoca temple.

The steps of the precinct bound for the Mexican deity, "El espejo que humea” (The smoking mirror) -located at the southeast of what was the sacred precinct of Tenochtitlan-, were identified long time ago in the adjoining property that houses the Museum of the Ministry of Finance and Public Credit, Old Archbishop's Palace.

In his text Tezcatlipoca in nahuatl world, the anthropologist Doris Heyden said that this god represented one of the most complex in the aztec pantheon: "He gave away properties and then he removed [ ... ] was positive and negative, moody and fickle". His complex and conflicted character is visible with their names and attributes; only in the Book VI of the Florentine Codex are 360 nicknames to speak to him.

The aztec evidence found in Moneda 2 corresponds to remnants of stone walls that lined quarters, a stool with tlecuil (oven made of adobe) to the center and gardens made of slabs of basalt and polished stucco.

According to the supervisor of the PAU, these architectural remains dating back to two constructive moments of pre-hispanic period: stage VI of the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan (1486-1502 AD) and stage VII (1502-1521), when it fell in hands of the spanish conquistadors.

Corresponding to two moments colonial occupation were identified; the first is one of the first place spread between spanish soldier, case of Pedro González Trujillo, who had his possession until 1527. For this purpose the pre-hispanic quarters were reused, "this can be inferred from the adjustments in the walls stone together with mortar of lime and sand".

"There is other evidence, the remains of a artesian water well made in the early colonial period of a prehispanic garden of slabs", notes INAH researcher.

After the real estate owned by Rodrigo Gomez Davila, around 1538 became part of Mayorazgo Grande de Guerrero. Historical documentation points out that by 1553 the building housed the Royal and Pontifical University of Mexico, becoming the first seat of this significant institution.

In this phase, the archaeologists detected remains of masonry walls and a floor made of slabs of pink andesite and some drains made from blocks of this type of rock and red brick.

Despite having been demolished almost to its foundations in the late viceregal period to raise another building (which today can be seen), the site retained the title of Mayorazgo Grande de Guerrero until 1836, date from which various individuals flaunted the property, along the ground floor was used by businesses.

Right on the site where it was the Coffee of Post Office, settled in 1872 the pub “El Nivel”, who wore the first license for that kind of business in the city. The place took its name from hyspography monument that was in that corner, in honor of Enrico Martinez (“Heinrich Martin”), who developing the first project to drain the Valley of Anahuac; the monument was measuring the level rising waters of the surrounding lakes that flooding the capital.

The pub worked until early 2010. His parishioners were the same presidents of the Republic that workers and bureaucrats, writers, photographers, artists and important figures such as caricaturist Jose Guadalupe Posada, the musician Agustin Lara, the muralist Diego Rivera and also in the 50’s of the twentieth century, it was frequented by Fidel Castro and Ernesto "Che" Guevara.

In the showcase you can also admired around 40 pieces, silent witnesses to the transformations of the house Moneda 2. From prehispanic season highlights small knives of obsidian, scrapers and a fragment of battlement. Among the colonial materials are found plates and bowls, pots, jars, olive container and candlesticks, glazed earthenware, smoothed and polished, and decorated animal bon. The modern period is represented by a pair of glass jars, one of Tequila Viuda de Romero.

Raul Barrera concludes that the archaeological information retrieved in modern strata comprising remains of mosaic floors, concrete pavement, sewer system and records of red walls and pipes for drinking water, among others.